Which DNA strand moves fastest?
Shorter strands of DNA move more quickly through the gel than longer strands resulting in the fragments being arranged in order of size.
Linear plasmid migrates faster than nicked plasmid as the linear plasmid has a smaller width than the nicked plasmid that is in circular form. This allows the linear plasmid to have higher mobility, since it can pass through the pores in the agarose gel more easily.
It is important to note that different forms of DNA move through the gel at different rates. Supercoiled plasmid DNA, because of its compact conformation, moves through the gel fastest, followed by a linear DNA fragment of the same size, with the open circular form traveling the slowest.
A small, compact supercoiled knot of ccc-DNA sustains less friction against the agarose matrix than does a large, floppy open circle of oc-DNA. Therefore, for the same over-all size, supercoiled DNA runs faster than open-circular DNA.
Smaller DNAs move more rapidly through the pores of the gel matrix than larger DNAs. The result is a continuous separation of the DNA fragments according to size, with the smallest DNA fragments moving the greatest distance away from the origin.
The rate of migration of a DNA molecule through a gel is determined by the following: 1) size of DNA molecule; 2) agarose concentration; 3) DNA conformation(5); 4) voltage applied, 5) presence of ethidium bromide, 6) type of agarose and 7) electrophoresis buffer.
Because transfection of circular DNA is more efficient than transfection of linear DNA and adaptable to viral vectors, we developed a system for the intracellular release of linear fragments from circular plasmids.
Replication occurs faster on circular DNA because it is bidirectional, meaning there are two replication forks (two regions of simultaneous DNA synthesis) traveling in opposite directions.
DNA is negatively charged and it will travel towards the positive electrode. Hence separation will be on the size of the fragments. The smaller DNA molecules move faster and farthest followed by the larger ones.
Circular DNA. Supercoiled (interwound) DNA molecules have more compact conformations than linear DNAs containing the same number of base pairs, and migrate faster than linear DNA [107-110].
Which DNA molecule will move the fastest or furthest through the gel?
Small DNA molecules move more quickly through the gel than larger DNA molecules. The result is a series of 'bands', with each band containing DNA molecules of a particular size. The bands furthest from the start of the gel contain the smallest fragments of DNA.
Therefore, the more supercoiled the DNA molecule, the faster it will migrate through an agarose gel toward the cathode.
Nicked plasmids assume a relaxed, open circular conformation and take up the most volume, migrating most slowly through the gel; linearized plasmids move through the gel at a slightly higher rate; intact, supercoiled plasmids, being the most compact, migrate the fastest.
Linear DNA is the form of DNA present in the eukaryotic nucleus and is composed of two free ends. Circular DNA is the DNA having a closed conformation and found in the cytoplasm of the prokaryotic cell, mitochondria or chloroplast. Linear DNA is found in the nucleus of eukaryotes.
Circular genome advantages are that it consistently replicates the whole genome, as opposed to linear genomes. Linear genomes actually lose a little bit of their DNA at the ends each time it replicates; these ends are called telomeres.
Due to the molecular sieving action of the gel matrix, smaller sized DNA fragments are able to migrate further toward the positive electrode during a given time. Larger DNA fragments cannot move through the mesh easily and therefore migrate slower during a given amount of time.
In gel electrophoresis, the smallest DNA fragments will travel the farthest.
The smaller DNA fragments travel faster and farther because they move more easily through the gel. To better understand this concept, imagine that a small DNA fragment is a small metal object, a large DNA fragment is a large metal object, and the positively-charged end of the gel is a magnet.
The rate of travel is inversely proportional to DNA fragment size. The smaller the DNA fragment, the faster it travels.
Shorter molecules move faster and migrate farther than longer ones because shorter molecules migrate more easily through the pores of the gel. This phenomenon is called sieving.  Proteins are separated by charge in agarose because the pores of the gel are too large to sieve proteins.
What speeds up DNA replication?
To speed up the process, there are many DNA polymerase enzymes acting at the same time to copy the entire DNA at all the different replication forks in the different replication bubbles. The end result is two identical copies.
Because of their compact size, supercoiled plasmids may move through a gel much more rapidly than a linear fragment of DNA with the same number of basepairs. Likewise, uncut relaxed plasmids usually move at a different speed than a cut fragment of the same mass.
Sorted Data: Linear search has no requirement for the data to be sorted. Binary search can only be implemented on sorted data. Efficiency: Binary search is faster (in terms of scan cycles) and more efficient compared to linear search especially for larger data sets.
Transient transfections are more efficient with highly supercoiled DNA compared to linear DNA, presumably because circular DNA is not vulnerable to exonucleases, while linear DNA fragments are quickly degraded by these enzymes (McLenachan et al., 2007; von Groll et al., 2006).
You should see more of a smear in the linearized sample, as it will consist of more differently-sized fragments. Circular DNA is more stable than linear DNA.
Linear DNA is seen in the nucleus of eukaryotic organisms. Circular DNA is seen in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells, organelles like chloroplast and mitochondria. It is large in size. It is comparatively smaller.
Shorter DNA segments find more pores that they can wiggle through, longer DNA segments need to do more squeezing and up or down moving. For this reason, shorter DNA segments move through their lane at a faster rate than longer DNA segments.
Thus, DNA fragments will migrate from the anode to the cathode because DNA molecules are negatively charged due to the phosphate groups in their backbone. DNA segments that are shorter are lighter. As a result, they move through the gel faster and travel the furthest away from the wells.
“the lagging strand polymerase synthesizes DNA faster than the leading strand polymerase.” DNA replication occurs at the replication fork, which forms when DNA is unwound by a helicase into strands that are copied by two polymerases into a leading strand and a lagging strand.
Further, the lagging strand polymerase is faster than leading strand synthesis, indicating that replisome rate is limited by the helicase.
Which sizes of DNA strands move through the gel the fastest?
 Nucleic acid molecules are separated by applying an electric field to move the negatively charged molecules through an agarose matrix. Shorter molecules move faster and migrate farther than longer ones because shorter molecules migrate more easily through the pores of the gel.
DNA replication is slower on the lagging strand than on the leading strand because upon initiation the leading strand has an RNA primer added so the synthesis of the new DNA can be continuous in the direction of the replication fork and only needs to be ligated when it encounters another replication fork.
DNA is a polyanion, but this is due to the phosphate groups in the backbone. If anything, having a lagging strand actually makes it more difficult to maintain a similar rate of replication between strands since they cannot be replicated in the same direction.
Interestingly, we find that lagging strand synthesis has opposite effects on the rate and processivity of the replisome. However, lagging strand synthesis reduces the rate of fork progression by ≈23%, which may reflect priming or the strain of DNA looping during Okazaki fragment synthesis.
The molecules travel through the pores in the gel at a speed that is inversely related to their lengths. This means that a small DNA molecule will travel a greater distance through the gel than will a larger DNA molecule.
Answer and Explanation: The shortest strand of DNA is E and the longest strand of DNA is B. The agarose gel used in gel electrophoresis has tiny pores throughout. As DNA is pulled through the gel, it needs to travel through these pores.
Our observation that the R orientation is more mutable than the L orientation (Tables 2 and 3) thus indicates that the leading strand produces more T⋅G errors and therefore that lagging strand replication is the more accurate one.
The lagging strand is synthesized continuously, whereas the leading strand is synthesized in short fragments that are ultimately stitched together. The leading strand is synthesized at twice the rate of the lagging strand. one RNA primer attaches to the 5' end of the parent strand and the other primer to the 3' end.
The leading strand is synthesized continuously in the 5' → 3' direction, while the lagging strand is synthesized discontinuously in the 5' → 3' direction. The leading strand requires an RNA primer, whereas the lagging strand does not.